Previous: All About Ionic
Chapter 2: Installation
In this chapter, we are going to walk through the process of downloading Ionic and installing all necessary dependencies for development.
First, we need to start with a note about minimum requirements for building your app with the current release of Ionic. Ionic targets iPhone and Android devices (currently). We support iOS 7+, and Android 4.1+. However, since there are a lot of different Android devices, it’s possible certain ones might not work. As always, we are looking for help testing and improving our device compatibility and would love help from the community on our GitHub project.
You can develop Ionic apps on any operating system you prefer. In fact, Ionic has been developed at various times on Mac OS X, Linux, and Windows. However, right now you’ll need to use the command line in order to follow this guide and you must have OS X in order to develop and deploy iPhone apps, so OS X is recommended if possible.
First, we will go and install the most recent version of Apache Cordova, which will take our app and bundle it into a native wrapper to turn it into a traditional native app.
To install Cordova, make sure you have Node.js installed, then run
$ sudo npm install -g cordova
sudo from the above command if running on Windows. Depending on the platforms you wish to develop for, you’ll need to install platform-specific tools. Follow the Cordova platform guides for Android and iOS to make sure you have everything needed for development on those platforms. Luckily, you’ll only need to do this once.
If you are running a 64-bit version of Ubuntu, you'll need to install the 32-bit libraries since Android is only 32-bit at the moment.
$ sudo apt-get install ia32-libs
If you are on Ubuntu 13.04 or greater, `ia32-libs` has been removed. You can use the following packages instead:
$ sudo apt-get install lib32z1 lib32ncurses5 lib32bz2-1.0
If you are running 64-bit version of Fedora you'll need to install some 32-bit packages:
$ sudo yum install -y glibc.i686 glibc-devel.i686 libstdc++.i686 zlib-devel.i686
ncurses-devel.i686 libX11-devel.i686 libXrender.i686 libXrandr.i686
Windows users developing for Android: You'll want to make sure you have the following installed and set up.
NOTE: Whenever you make changes to the PATH, or any other environment variable, you'll need to restart or open a new tab in your shell program for the PATH change to take effect.
Install the most recent Java 8 JDK (NOT just the JRE), JDK 9 is NOT currently (2017.12) supported by Cordova.
Next, create an environment variable for
JAVA_HOME pointing to the root folder where the Java JDK was installed. So, if you installed the JDK into
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk7, set
JAVA_HOME to be this path. After that, add the JDK's
bin directory to the PATH variable as well. Following the previous assumption, this should be either
%JAVA_HOME%\bin or the full path
To install Ant, download a zip from here, extract it, move the first folder in the zip to a safe place, and update your PATH to include the
bin folder in that folder. For example, if you moved the Ant folder to
c:/, you'd want to add this to your PATH:
Installing the Android SDK is also necessary. The Android SDK provides you the API libraries and developer tools necessary to build, test, and debug apps for Android.
Cordova requires the ANDROID_HOME environment variable to be set. This should point to the
[ANDROID_SDK_DIR]\android-sdk directory (for example
Next, update your PATH to include the
platform-tools/ folder in that folder. So, using ANDROID_HOME, you would add both
Ionic comes with a convenient command line utility to start, build, and package Ionic apps.
To install it, simply run:
$ sudo npm install -g ionic
Create the project
Now, we need to create a new Cordova project somewhere on the computer for the code for our app:
$ ionic start todo blank --type ionic1
That will create a folder called
todo in the directory the command was run. Next, we will go into that directory and list the contents. Here is what the outer structure of your Ionic project will look like:
$ cd todo && ls ├── bower.json // bower dependencies ├── config.xml // cordova configuration ├── gulpfile.js // gulp tasks ├── hooks // custom cordova hooks to execute on specific commands ├── ionic.project // ionic configuration ├── package.json // node dependencies ├── platforms // iOS/Android specific builds will reside here ├── plugins // where your cordova/ionic plugins will be installed ├── scss // scss code, which will output to www/css/ └── www // application - JS code and libs, CSS, images, etc.
If you are planning on using any version control system, you can go ahead and set it up in this new folder.
Now, we need to tell ionic that we want to enable the iOS and Android platforms. Note: unless you are on MacOS, leave out the iOS platform:
$ ionic cordova platform add ios $ ionic cordova platform add android
If you see errors here, make sure to follow the platform guides above to install necessary platform tools.
If you get this error:
[Error: ERROR : Make sure JAVA_HOME is set, as well as paths to your JDK and JRE for java.] Then try running this command first before adding the android platform:
$ export JAVA_HOME=$(/usr/libexec/java_home)
Test it out
Just to make sure the default project worked, try building and running the project (substitute ios for android to build for Android instead):
$ ionic cordova build ios $ ionic cordova emulate ios
We don't recommend using "emulate" for Android development. Unfortunately, the default Android emulator is horribly slow and will not accurately represent a real device. Using the emulator isn't even recommended for native Android development.
Fortunately, there are some great alternatives out there. Our favorite is a tool called Genymotion which can run an Android device as a virtual machine on your computer. It's much faster! If you use Genymotion, you'll use
ionic cordova run instead of
ionic cordova emulate as a Genymotion image appears as a physical device to the operating system.
If you chose to emulate on Android, be patient as this takes several minutes as the Android emulator is booted up. If you don't see anything happen for a few minutes, make sure you've created an Android Virtual Device (AVD), and that it is using the Android SDK version 17 or above. You might have to reduce the amount of memory the AVD is using if you don't see the emulator boot up in a minute. The platform guide above has more information. You may also want to double check that you have the sdk and platform tools in your PATH as noted in the platform guide.
The emulator takes a LONG time to boot. After about 5 or 10 minutes, you should see the default Cordova app running in the emulator:
Of course, you can always test directly on the device, and that is the recommended way to develop on Android due to the slow emulator. To do that,
run and ensure you have an Android device connected to the computer.
Now we are ready to start building our app, so continue on to the next chapter: